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Innovation has long been recognized as an engine of competitiveness and growth and as an effective tool to face the crisis at the macro and the micro levels. Innovation can be considered as an outcome (new products and new processes or new organizations) but also as a process that involves many activities linked together, namely basic research, industrial research and development and commercialization. It is thus crucial, when dealing with innovation performance, to study and assess the quantitative and qualitative evolutions of funding resources dedicated to science systems and industrial R&D. Moreover, while access to finance is considered as a driver for innovation at the firm level, the difficulties to succeed in raising funds is regarded as a persistent barrier to scaling up for the large share of young innovative companies. Many managerial issues are also raised by the evolution of the sources of funding such as governance and control issues.